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sábado, 17 de novembro de 2012

Imunologia brasileira no Pubmed (atualizado 16/nov/2012)


Dos 35 artigos que aparecem na busca atualizada esta semana, 6 foram publicados em revistas da família PLOS.

Sent on Friday, 2012 November 16 
Search: ((brazil OR brasil[Affiliation])) AND (immune OR immunology OR imunologia)

Click here to view complete results in PubMed (Results may change over time.) 

Results: 35

1.
 2012;7(11):e49022. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0049022. Epub 2012 Nov 12.

IL-12p40 Deficiency Leads to Uncontrolled Trypanosoma cruzi Dissemination in the Spinal Cord Resulting in Neuronal Death and Motor Dysfunction.

Source

Department of Immunology, Biomedical Sciences Institute, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil ; Neuroregeneration Center, Department of Neurology, University of São Paulo School of Medicine, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Abstract

Chagas' disease is a protozoosis caused by Trypanosoma cruzi that frequently shows severe chronic clinical complications of the heart or digestive system. Neurological disorders due to T. cruzi infection are also described in children and immunosuppressed hosts. We have previously reported that IL-12p40 knockout (KO) mice infected with the T. cruzi strain Sylvio X10/4 develop spinal cord neurodegenerative disease. Here, we further characterized neuropathology, parasite burden and inflammatory component associated to the fatal neurological disorder occurring in this mouse model. Forelimb paralysis in infected IL-12p40KO mice was associated with 60% (...).

23152844
 
[PubMed - in process] 
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2.
 2012 Dec;54(6):319-23.

Effects of vitamin C supplementation on acute phase Chagas disease in experimentally infected mice with Trypanosoma cruzi QM1 strain.

Source

Department of Parasitology of Marília Medical School, FAMEMA, Marília, São Paulo, Brazil, 17519-070.

Abstract

The tissue changes that occur in Chagas disease are related to the degree of oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity of affected tissue. Studies with vitamin C supplementation did not develop oxidative damage caused by Chagas disease in the host, but other studies cite the use of peroxiredoxins ascorbate - dependent on T. cruzi to offer protection against immune reaction. Based on these propositions, thirty "Swiss" mice were infected with T. cruzi QM1 strain and treated with two different vitamin C doses in order to study the parasitemia evolution, histopathological changes and lipid peroxidation biomarkers during the acute phase of Chagas disease. The results showed that the parasite clearance was greater in animals fed with vitamin C overdose. There were no significant differences regarding the biomarkers of lipid peroxidation and inflammatory process or the increase of myocardium in animals treated with the recommended dosage. The largest amount of parasite growth towards the end of the acute phase suggests the benefit of high doses of vitamin C for trypomastigotes. The supplementation doesn't influence the production of free radicals or the number of amastigote nests in the acute phase of Chagas disease.
PMID:
 
23152316
 
[PubMed - in process] 
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3.
 2012 Sep;11(9):1039-41. doi: 10.1586/erv.12.82.

CD8(+) T-cell-mediated immunity against malaria: a novel heterologous prime-boost strategy.

Source

Departamento de Análises Clínicas e Toxicológicas, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 580, São Paulo, 05508-900, Brazil.

Abstract

Evaluation of: Rodríguez D, González-Aseguinolaza G, Rodríguez JR et al. Vaccine efficacy against malaria by the combination of porcine parvovirus-like particles and vaccinia virus vectors expressing CS of Plasmodium. PLoS ONE 7(4), e34445 (2012). Recently, a vaccine against malaria was successfully tested in a human Phase III trial. The efficacy of this vaccine formulation, based on the Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein, was approximately 50% and correlated with the presence of antibodies specific to the infective stages of the malaria parasites. Different strategies are being pursued to improve vaccine efficacy levels. One such strategy is the induction of specific cytotoxic T cells that can destroy the intracellular hepatocyte stages of the malaria parasite. In this study, a novel vaccination protocol was developed to elicit strong immune responses mediated by CD8(+) cytotoxic cells specific to the circumsporozoite protein. As proof-of-concept, the authors used the rodent malaria Plasmodium yoelii parasite. The vaccination strategy consisted of a heterologous prime-boost vaccination regimen involving porcine parvovirus-like particles for priming and the modified vaccinia virus Ankara for the booster immunization, both of which expressed the immunodominant CD8 epitope of the P. yoelii circumsporozoite protein. Results from this experimental model were extremely meaningful. This vaccination strategy led to a significant T-cell immune response mediated by CD8(+) multifunctional T effector and effector-memory cells. However, most importantly for the malaria vaccine development was the fact that following a sporozoite challenge, immunized mice eliminated more than 97% of the malaria parasites during the hepatocyte stages. These results confirm and extend a vast body of knowledge showing that a heterologous prime-boost vaccination strategy can elicit strong CD8(+) T-cell-mediated protective immunity and may increase the efficacy of malaria vaccines.
PMID:
 
23151162
 
[PubMed - in process]
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4.
 2012 Oct;6(10):e1867. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001867. Epub 2012 Oct 25.

Myocardial Chemokine Expression and Intensity of Myocarditis in Chagas Cardiomyopathy Are Controlled by Polymorphisms in CXCL9 and CXCL10.

Source

Laboratory of Immunology, Heart Institute (InCor), School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil ; Division of Clinical Immunology and Allergy, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil ; Institute for Investigation inImmunology (iii), INCT, São Paulo, Brazil.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC), a life-threatening inflammatory dilated cardiomyopathy, affects 30% of the approximately 8 million patients infected by Trypanosoma cruzi. Even though the Th1 T cell-rich myocarditis plays a pivotal role in CCC pathogenesis, little is known about the factors controlling inflammatory cell migration to CCC myocardium.

METHODS AND RESULTS:

Using confocal immunofluorescence and quantitative PCR, we studied cell surface staining and gene expression of the CXCR3, CCR4, CCR5, CCR7, CCR8 receptors and their chemokine ligands in myocardial samples from end-stage CCC patients. CCR5+, CXCR3+, CCR4+, CCL5+ and CXCL9+ mononuclear cells were observed in CCC myocardium. mRNA expression of the chemokines CCL5, CXCL9, CXCL10, CCL17, CCL19 and their receptors was upregulated in CCC myocardium. CXCL9 mRNA expression directly correlated with the intensity of myocarditis, as well as with mRNA expression of CXCR3, CCR4, CCR5, CCR7, CCR8 and their ligands. We also analyzed single-nucleotide polymorphisms for genes encoding the most highly expressed chemokines and receptors in a cohort of Chagas disease patients. CCC patients with ventricular dysfunction displayed reduced genotypic frequencies of CXCL9 rs10336 CC, CXCL10 rs3921 GG, and increased CCR5 rs1799988CC as compared to those without dysfunction. Significantly, myocardial samples from CCC patients carrying the CXCL9/CXCL10 genotypes associated to a lower risk displayed a 2-6 fold reduction in mRNA expression of CXCL9, CXCL10, and other chemokines and receptors, along with reduced intensity of myocarditis, as compared to those with other CXCL9/CXCL10 genotypes.

CONCLUSIONS:

Results may indicate that genotypes associated to reduced risk in closely linked CXCL9 and CXCL10 genes may modulate local expression of the chemokines themselves, and simultaneously affect myocardial expression of other key chemokines as well as intensity of myocarditis. Taken together our results may suggest that CXCL9 and CXCL10 are master regulators of myocardial inflammatory cell migration, perhaps affecting clinical progression to the life-threatening form of CCC.
PMID:
 
23150742
 
[PubMed - in process] 
PMCID:
 
PMC3493616
 
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5.
 2013;954:493-503. doi: 10.1007/978-1-62703-161-5_30.

The mouse as a model for pulmonary legionella infection.

Source

Department of Cell Biology, University of São Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Abstract

Legionella pneumophila is an intracellular bacterium that was evolutionarily selected to survive in freshwater environments by infecting free-living unicellular protozoa. Once humans inhale contaminated water droplets, the bacteria reach the pulmonary alveoli where they are phagocytized by resident alveolar macrophages. Depending on host immunity and bacterial virulence genes, the infection may progress to an acute pneumonia called Legionnaires' disease, which can be fatal. Of note, an effective immune response is critical to the outcome of the human infection. These clinical observations highlight the importance of animal models of pulmonary infection for in vivo investigation of bacterial pathogenesis and host responses. In this chapter we provide detailed protocols for intranasal infection of mouse with L. pneumophila.
PMID:
 
23150416
 
[PubMed - in process]
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6.
 2012 Oct;4(10):1053-61. doi: 10.2217/imt.12.117.

Plasmacytoid dendritic cells and immunotherapy in multiple sclerosis.

Source

Neuroimmunology Unit, Department of Genetics, Evolution & Bioagents, University of Campinas, Rua Monteiro Lobato, 255, Campinas, SP Brazil, CEP 13083-970, Brazil.

Abstract

Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are specialized APCs implicated in the pathogenesis of many human diseases. Compared with other peripheral blood mononuclear cells, pDCs express a high level of TLR9, which recognizes viral DNA at the initial phase of viral infection. Upon stimulation, these cells produce large amounts of type I interferon and other proinflammatory cytokines and are able to prime T lymphocytes. Thus, pDCs regulate innate and adaptive immune responses. This article reviews select aspects of pDC biology relevant to the disease pathogenesis and immunotherapy in multiple sclerosis. Many unresolved questions remain in this area, promising important future discoveries in pDC research.
PMID:
 
23148757
 
[PubMed - in process]
7.
 2012 Nov;107(7):903-8.

Fast test for assessing the susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to isoniazid and rifampin by real-time PCR.

Source

Centro de Imunologia, Instituto Adolfo Lutz, São Paulo, SP, Brasil.

Abstract

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the bacterium that causes tuberculosis (TB), a leading cause of death from infectious disease worldwide. Rapid diagnosis of resistant strains is important for the control of TB. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays may detect all of the mutations that occur in the M. tuberculosis 81-bp core region of the rpoB gene, which is responsible for resistance to rifampin (RIF) and codon 315 of the katG gene and the inhA ribosomal binding site, which are responsible for isoniazid (INH). The goal of this study was to assess the performance of RT-PCR compared to traditional culture-based methods for determining the drug susceptibility of M. tuberculosis. BACTEC TM MGIT TM 960 was used as the gold standard method for phenotypic drug susceptibility testing. Susceptibilities to INH and RIF were also determined by genotyping of katG, inhA and rpoB genes. RT-PCR based on molecular beacons probes was used to detect specific point mutations associated with resistance. The sensitivities of RT-PCR in detecting INH resistance using katG and inhA targets individually were 55% and 25%, respectively and 73% when combined. The sensitivity of the RT-PCR assay in detecting RIF resistance was 99%. The median time to complete the RT-PCR assay was three-four hours. The specificities for tests were both 100%. Our results confirm that RT-PCR can detect INH and RIF resistance in less than four hours with high sensitivity.
PMID:
 
23147147
 
[PubMed - in process] 
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8.
 2012 Nov;107(7):899-902.

Polymerase chain reaction for the evaluation of Schistosoma mansoni infection in two low endemicity areas of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Source

Departamento de Parasitologia, Microbiologia e Imunologia, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, MG, Brasil.

Abstract

This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of schistosomiasis in areas with low endemicity using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as a diagnostic method. We analysed faecal samples from 219 individuals residing in Piau and Coronel Pacheco, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using a single faecal sample from each individual and two slides of the Kato-Katz technique as a gold standard. Fifteen out of the 219 samples were positive with both methods of diagnosis. One sample was diagnosed as positive by the Kato-Katz technique only and 61 were diagnosed only by PCR. The positivity rates were 7.3% with the Kato-Katz method and 34.7% with PCR. When both techniques were assumed to have 100% specificity and positive individuals were identified by both methods, the sensitivity of the Kato-Katz method was 20.8% and the PCR sensitivity was 98.7%. The Kappa index between the two techniques was 0.234, suggesting weak agreement. The assessment of a single faecal sample by PCR detected more cases of infection than the analysis of one sample with two slides using the Kato-Katz technique, suggesting that PCR can be a useful diagnostic tool, particularly in areas with low endemicity.
PMID:
 
23147146
 
[PubMed - in process] 
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9.
 2012 Nov 12. [Epub ahead of print]

Neutralizing antibodies in HIV-1-infected Brazilian individuals.

Source

Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; dalziza@gmail.com.

Abstract

Tests for detection of the humoral immune response to HIV-1 have to be standardized and established, demanding regional efforts. For this purpose the Neutralizing Antibody (NAb) assay for HIV-1 in TZM-bl cells was introduced in Brazil. Twenty plasma samples from HIV-1-infected individuals were assayed: 10 progressors and 10 long-term non-progressors. These were tested against 8 env-pseudotyped viruses (psVs) in the TZM-bl NAb assay and against HIV-1 strain HTLV/IIIB (HIV-1 IIIB) in primary lymphocytes. Forty-four percent of the samples showed neutralizing titers for psVs and 55% for HIV-1 IIIB. Plasma from progressors showed a broader neutralization and a higher potency. The introduction of these reference reagents encourages the participation of Brazil in future comparative assessments of anti-HIV-1 antibodies.
PMID:
 
23145941
 
[PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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10.
 2012 Nov 12. doi: 10.1111/myc.12018. [Epub ahead of print]

Characterization of the cellular immunity in patients presenting extensive dermatophytoses due to Trichophyton rubrum.

Source

Laboratory of Medical Investigation in Dermatology and Immunodeficiencies (LIM/56) and Primary Immunodeficiency Outpatient Unit (ADEE-3003), Department of Dermatology, Faculdade de Medicina, da Universidade de São Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Abstract

Dermatophytes invade the stratum corneum of the skin and other keratinized tissues such as hair and nails, and Trichophyton rubrum causes approximately 80% of cutaneous mycoses in humans. To evaluate the cellular immune response of patients with extensive dermatophytosis caused by T. rubrum, we evaluated lymphocyte populations, the lymphoproliferative response to: phytohaemagglutinin (PHA); anti-CD3 (OKT3); and pokeweed mitogen (PWM), Candida sp. (CMA), an extract of T. rubrum, and the main fungal epitope TriR2 (T). We also evaluated interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, IL-12 and IFN-γ after stimulation by PHA, CMA and TriR2. The immunophenotyping showed no differences between patients and controls. The lymphoproliferation test showed significant differences between the groups stimulated by PWM and CMA, as well as against TriR2, being significantly higher for the control group. Conversely, there were similar results for the groups after stimulation by the extract. The cytokines' quantification showed a significant difference between the groups only for IFN-γ stimulated by PHA and TriR2. We can conclude that the fungal extract can stimulate lymphoproliferation by both groups' lymphocytes. However, the response to Tri r2 was more specific. We showed that some patients with extensive dermatophytosis have normal cellular response, recognising both the extract and TriR2.
© 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
PMID:
 
23145831
 
[PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
11.
 2012;7(11):e48780. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0048780. Epub 2012 Nov 7.

In Vitro and In Vivo Activity of an Organic Tellurium Compound on Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi.

Source

Departamento de Microbiologia, Imunologia e Parasitologia, Escola Paulista de Medicina - Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Abstract

Tellurium compounds have shown several biological properties and recently the leishmanicidal effect of one organotellurane was demonstrated. These findings led us to test the effect of the organotellurium compound RF07 on Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi, the agent of visceral leishmaniasis in Latin America. In vitro assays were performed in L. (L.) chagasi-infected bone marrow derived macrophages treated with different concentrations of RF07. In in vivo experiments Golden hamsters were infected with L. (L.) chagasi and injected intraperitoneally with RF07 whereas control animals received either Glucantime or PBS. The effect of RF07 on cathepsin B activity of L. (L.) chagasi amastigotes was assayed spectrofluorometrically using fluorogenic substrates. The main findings were: 1) RF07 showed significant leishmanicidal activity against intracellular parasites at submicromolar concentrations (IC50 of 529.7±26.5 nM), and the drug displayed 10-fold less toxicity to macrophages (CC50 of 5,426±272.8 nM); 2) kinetics assays showed an increasing leishmanicidal action of RF07 at longer periods of treatment; 3) one month after intraperitoneal injection of RF07 L. (L.) chagasi-infected hamsters showed a reduction of 99.6% of parasite burden when compared to controls that received PBS; 4) RF07 inhibited the cathepsin B activity of L. (L.) chagasi amastigotes. The present results demonstrated that the tellurium compound RF07 is able to destroy L. (L.) chagasi in vitro and in vivo at concentrations that are non toxic to the host. We believe these findings support further study of the potential of RF07 as a possible alternative for the chemotherapy of visceral leishmaniasis.
PMID:
 
23144968
 
[PubMed - in process] 
PMCID:
 
PMC3492430
 
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12.
 2012;7(10):e48313. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0048313. Epub 2012 Oct 29.

Effects of the Oral Administration of Viable and Heat-Killed Streptococcus bovis HC5 Cells to Pre-Sensitized BALB/c Mice.

Source

Departamento de Microbiologia, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Abstract

Antimicrobial peptides have been suggested as an alternative to classical antibiotics in livestock production and bacteriocin-producing bacteria could be added to animal feeds to deliver bacteriocins in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of ruminant and monogastric animals. In this study, viable (V) and heat-killed (HK) Streptococcus bovis HC5 cells were orally administered to pre-sensitized mice in order to assess the effects of a bacteriocin-producing bacteria on histological parameters and the immune response of the GI tract of monogastric animals. The administration of V and HK S. bovis HC5 cells during 58 days to BALB/c mice did not affect weight gain, but an increase in gut permeability was detected in animals receiving the HK cells. Viable and heat killed cells caused similar morphological alterations in the GI tract of the animals, but the most prominent effects were detected in the small intestine. The oral administration of S. bovis HC5 also influenced cytokine production in the small intestine, and the immune-mediated activity differed between V and HK cells. The relative expression of IL-12 and INF-γ was significantly higher in the small intestine of mice treated with V cells, while an increase in IL-5, IL-13 and TNF-α expression was only detected in mice treated with HK cells. Considering that even under a condition of severe challenge (pre-sensitization followed by daily exposure to the same bacterial immunogen) the general health of the animals was maintained, it appears that oral administration of S. bovis HC5 cells could be a useful route to deliver bacteriocin in the GI tract of livestock animals.
PMID:
 
23144752
 
[PubMed - in process] 
PMCID:
 
PMC3483269
 
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13.
 2012 Nov 8. [Epub ahead of print]

Ketoprofen Impairs Immunosuppression Induced by Severe Sepsis and Reveals an Important Role for Prostaglandin E2.

Source

1Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, 2Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, 3Departamento de Imunologia, Instituto de Microbiologia Pedro Paulo Góes, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil; 4Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 5Department of Pathology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA, 6Programa de Farmacologia, Coordenação de Pesquisa, Instituto Nacional do Câncer José Alencar.

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

The mechanism of immunosuppression induced by severe sepsis is not fully understood. The production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) during sepsis is wellknown, but its role in long-term consequences of sepsis has not been explored. The current study evaluates the role of PGE2 in the development of immunosuppression secondary to sepsis, and its potential as therapeutic target.

EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:

Cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) was used as an experimental model for sepsis induction in Balb/c and C57BL/6 mice. Immunosuppression was evaluated by the response to secondary infection with Aspergillus fumigatus in sepsis survivors. The role of prostanoids was evaluated in vivo and in vitro by treatment with the cyclooxygenase (COX)-inhibitor ketoprofen.

KEY RESULTS:

Balb/c mice were more susceptible than C57BL/6 to severe sepsis and to secondary infection, with a greater mortality rate. PGE2 concentrations found in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in Sham and CLP group after fungal challenge were much higher in Balb/c than in C57BL/6 mice. Ketoprofen treatment improved survival of septic Balb/c mice subjected to secondary infection, while also enhancing macrophage phagocytosis and neutrophil recruitment to the lungs. We identified a pivotal role for PGE2 acting on EP4 receptors in modulating cytokine production differentially by sham and septic macrophages. Furthermore, sepsis also altered key enzymes in PGE2 synthesis and degradation.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our results indicate the involvement of PGE2 in severe sepsis-induced immunosuppression. Inhibition of PGE2 production represents an attractive target to improve innate immuneresponse against secondary infection in the immunocompromised host.
PMID:
 
23143054
 
[PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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14.
 2012 Nov 7. pii: S0014-4894(12)00319-0. doi: 10.1016/j.exppara.2012.10.008. [Epub ahead of print]

Prednisolone and Cyclosporine A: Effects on an Experimental Model of Ancylostomiasis.

Source

Laboratório de Parasitologia Molecular, Departamento de Parasitologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais. Av. Antônio Carlos, 6627, Pampulha. CEP 31270-901. Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Abstract

Corticosteroids and cyclosporine A (CsA) are important clinical immunosuppressive drugs used in the maintenance of organ transplants and in suppressing undesired autoimmune or allergic immune responses. To study the effect of CsA and prednisolone on the course of an Ancylostoma ceylanicum infection, hamsters were treated with commercially available prednisolone or CsA. For both drugs, half the recommended dose was sufficient to inhibit the proliferation of more than 70% of hamster lymph node cells. There was no difference in the recovery of adult worms; however, animals treated with prednisolone presented with low egg counts in the feces. Infection with A. ceylanicum resulted in an increase in specific antibodies against adult worm antigens, but hamsters treated with either drug presented with lower IgG titers. We observed that A. ceylanicum infection caused peripheral cellular immune suppression, which is characterized by a reduction in the total white cell count, neutropenia and lymphopenia. We also observed a lymphoplasmacytic pattern and few eosinophils in the mucosal inflammatory infiltrate for all the animals. The animals treated with prednisolone showed changes in the architecture of the intestine, including the loss of the mucosa, intense congestion and inflammation. In spleen, we observed hyperplasia of white pulp in all infected animals; in addition, there was a loss of tissue architecture in the animals treated with prednisolone. In conclusion, this work shows that an A. ceylanicum infection leads to acute peripheral cellular immune suppression in hamsters but not humoral immune suppression and that CsA treatment does not interfere with the process of infection. However, prednisolone treatment causes intestinal injury, what could hamper the parasite attachment to the intestinal wall, and as a result affects copulation and, consequently, decreases the number of eggs eliminated in the feces. Moreover, the possibility that the drug can also be exerting an effect on female fertility should be considered.
Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
PMID:
 
23142084
 
[PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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15.
 2012 Nov 7. pii: S0899-9007(12)00282-1. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2012.07.010. [Epub ahead of print]

Effectiveness of immunonutrient-enriched diets in the decrease of infections and mortality in the critically ill.

Source

School of Nutrition, Federal University of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Urca, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Electronic address: regina_me@hotmail.com.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Pharmaconutrients have been shown in clinical and laboratory studies to modulate human and animal immune responses and thus to have potential benefits for the critically ill. However, reviews and meta-analyses continue to reflect controversy in the published research and a lack of agreement regarding these benefits. The objective of this study was to contribute to the resolution of such controversy by evaluating the effectiveness of immunonutrient-enriched diets in decreasing complications and mortality in patients with different critical illnesses.

METHODS:

The present study is a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials that evaluated the use of immunomodulating nutrients in critically ill adults. The PubMed and CINAHL datasets were searched.

RESULTS:

Two hundred sixteen articles were initially found, but only 39 met the established inclusion criteria. In the general population, mortality did not show a statistically significant relative risk (RR) decrease (0.86, confidence interval [CI] 0.70-1.06); infection complications were decreased, with a general RR of 0.57 (CI 0.44-0.74) and an RR of 0.53 (CI 0.44-0.65) in surgical patients; and the sepsis incidence was decreased (RR 0.52, CI 0.30-0.91).

CONCLUSIONS:

The administration of immunomodulating nutrient-enriched diets did not change the mortality of critically ill or surgical patients, but infection complications in critically ill patients, in particular the surgical population, were decreased. Explanatory clinical trials using isolated immunomodulating nutrients in different populations of critically ill patients followed by pragmatic trials based on clinical trial results should be considered in future research.
Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
PMID:
 
23141120
 
[PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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16.
 2012 Oct;20(5):503-9.

Decreased phagocytic function in neutrophils and monocytes from peripheral blood in periodontal disease.

Source

Periodontics Division, University of Brasilia, Brasilia, DF, Brazil.

Abstract

Phagocytosis by neutrophils and monocytes constitutes the main defense mechanism against bacterial challenges in periodontitis. Phagocytosis by neutrophils has already been evaluated, whereas phagocytic function of monocytes has hardly been addressed so far. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess phagocytosis by neutrophils and monocytes in periodontitis. Material and Methods: The sample included 30 subjects with severe periodontitis and 27 control subjects without periodontal disease. The phagocytic index (PhI) was calculated as the mean number of adhered/ingested Saccharomyces cerevisiae per phagocytozing monocyte or neutrophil multiplied by the percentage of phagocytes involved in phagocytosis. Results: A significant reduction in phagocyte functions was observed in individuals with periodontitis. The median of PhI of neutrophils using nonsensitized S. cerevisiae was 3 for the control group, and 1.5 for the periodontitis group (p=0.01, Mann-Whitney test). The median of PhI of monocytes with non-sensitized S. cerevisiae was 26.13 for the control group, and 13.23 for the periodontitis group (p=0.03, Mann Whitney test). The median of PhI of monocytes assessed with sensitized S. cerevisiae was 97.92 for the control group and 60.1 for the periodontitis group (p=0.005, t-test). Conclusion: The data demonstrated a reduction in the function of phagocytes, suggesting a decrease in immune defenses in periodontitis.
PMID:
 
23138734
 
[PubMed - in process] 
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17.
 2012 Nov 5. pii: S0198-8859(12)00597-6. doi: 10.1016/j.humimm.2012.10.026. [Epub ahead of print]

Evaluation of IL17A expression and of IL17A, IL17F and IL23R gene polymorphisms in Brazilian individuals with periodontitis.

Source

Laboratory of Cell-Cell Interactions, Department of Morphology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Minas Gerais, 6625 Antônio Carlos Avenue, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

Abstract

The IL23/Th17 axis plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cell-mediated tissue damage caused either by autoimmunity or immune responses against bacterial infection. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the IL17A, IL17F and IL23R genes have been associated with several inflammatory diseases. However, these polymorphisms have not yet been studied in periodontitis. The aim of present study was to evaluate the expression of IL17A and occurrence of the IL17A (rs2275913), IL17F (rs763780) and IL23R (rs11209026) gene polymorphisms in different clinical forms or severity of periodontitis in a sample of Brazilian individuals. Peripheral blood was obtained from 30 non-smoker individuals and analyzed by flow cytometry to determine IL-17 expression. Genomic DNA was obtained from oral swabs in 180 individuals and analyzed by Real-Time PCR. The study group was composed by individuals without periodontitis (control), with aggressive periodontitis (AP) and with chronic periodontitis (CP). Higher frequency of IL17A+CD4+Tcells was observed in control group. The A+ genotype from IL17A (rs2275913) was associated with lack of disease. No association was found considering the IL17F and IL23R polymorphisms. Our data suggest that IL17A and the presence of IL17A (rs2275913) A allele are associated with the absence of periodontal disease.
Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.
PMID:
 
23137879
 
[PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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18.
 2012 Nov 5. pii: S0264-410X(12)01561-7. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.10.088. [Epub ahead of print]

Immunisation of mice with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae antigens P37, P42, P46 and P95 delivered as recombinant subunit or DNA vaccines.

Source

Núcleo de Biotecnologia, Centro de Desenvolvimento Tecnológico, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, RS, Brazil.

Abstract

Porcine enzootic pneumonia (PEP), which is caused by the fastidious bacterium Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, is one of the most economically important diseases in the pig industry worldwide. Commercial bacterins provide only partial protection; therefore, the development of more efficient vaccines against PEP is necessary. In this study, the cellular and humoral immune responses elicited by DNA and recombinant subunit vaccines based on the P37, P42, P46 and P95 antigens of M. hyopneumoniae were evaluated after the intramuscular inoculation of BALB/c mice. The expression of the cytokines INFγ, TNFα and IL1 was evaluated by real-time RT-PCR in splenocytes from vaccinated mice. All antigens delivered as subunit vaccines, especially P42 and P95, and the pcDNA3/P46 DNA vaccine were able to elicit strongimmune responses. These vaccines induced cellular immune responses and the production of antibodies able to react with native M. hyopneumoniae proteins. Because both cellular and humoral immune responses were induced, P42 and P95 are promising candidates for a recombinant subunit vaccine and P46 is a promising candidate for a DNA vaccine against PEP.
Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
PMID:
 
23137841
 
[PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Icon for Elsevier Science
19.
 2012 Nov 9. doi: 10.1111/all.12057. [Epub ahead of print]

Lipids are required for the development of Brazil nut allergy: the role of mouse and human iNKT cells.

Source

Departamento de Imunologia, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brasil.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Lipids are required for mice sensitization to Ber e 1, Brazil nut major allergen. Here, we characterized different lipid fractions extracted from Brazil nuts and the lipid-binding ability of Ber e 1. Further, we determined their in vivo ability to induce Ber-specific anaphylactic antibodies and the role of invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells in this process.

METHODS:

Wild-type (WT) and iNKT cell-deficient mice were sensitized with Ber e 1 and specific lipid fractions, and anaphylactic antibodies were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA). The lipid-binding characteristic of Ber e 1 (Ber) was established by using fluorescent probes and (15) N-labeled NMR. In vitro production of IL-4 was determined in Ber/lipid C-stimulated mouse iNKT cells and human T-cell lines containing NKTs primed with CD1d+C1R transfectants by flow cytometry and ELISA, respectively.

RESULTS:

Only one specific lipid fraction (lipid C), containing neutral and common phospholipids, induced Ber anaphylactic antibodies in mice. Ber e 1 has a lipid-binding site, and our results indicated an interaction between Ber e 1 and lipid C. iNKT-deficient mice produced lower levels of anaphylactic antibodies than WT mice. In vitro, Ber/lipid C-stimulated murine iNKT cells produced IL-4 but not IFN-gamma. Human T-cell lines derived from nut-allergic patients produced IL-4 to Ber/lipid C in a CD1d- and dose-dependent manner.

CONCLUSION:

Lipid fraction C from Brazil nut presents an essential adjuvant activity to Ber e 1 sensitization, and iNKT cells play a critical role in the development of Brazil nut-allergic response.
© 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
PMID:
 
23137012
 
[PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Icon for Blackwell Publishing
20.
 2012 Aug 2;12:44. doi: 10.1186/1472-6750-12-44.

Characterization and optimization of ArtinM lectin expression in Escherichia coli.

Source

Departamento de Biologia, FFCLRP, Av. Bandeirantes 3900, Ribeirão Preto 14040-901, Brazil. mcspranc@uft.edu.br

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

ArtinM is a d-mannose-specific lectin from Artocarpus integrifolia seeds that induces neutrophil migration and activation, degranulation of mast cells, acceleration of wound healing, induction of interleukin-12 production by macrophages and dendritic cells, and protective T helper 1 immune response against Leishmania major, Leishmania amazonensis and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infections. Considering the important biological properties of ArtinM and its therapeutic applicability, this study was designed to produce high-level expression of active recombinant ArtinM (rArtinM) in Escherichia coli system.

RESULTS:

The ArtinM coding region was inserted in pET29a(+) vector and expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3)-Codon Plus-RP. The conditions for overexpression of soluble ArtinM were optimized testing different parameters: temperatures (20, 25, 30 or 37°C) and shaking speeds (130, 200 or 220 rpm) during induction, concentrations of the induction agent IPTG (0.01-4 mM) and periods of induction (1-19 h). BL21-CodonPlus(DE3)-RP cells induced under the optimized conditions (incubation at 20°C, at a shaking speed of 130 rpm, induction with 0.4 mM IPTG for 19 h) resulted in the accumulation of large amounts of soluble rArtinM. The culture provided 22.4 mg/L of rArtinM, which activity was determined by its one-step purification through affinity chromatography on immobilized d-mannose and glycoarray analysis. Gel filtration showed that rArtinM is monomeric, contrasting with the tetrameric form of the plant native protein (jArtinM). The analysis of intact rArtinM by mass spectrometry revealed a 16,099.5 Da molecular mass, and the peptide mass fingerprint and esi-cid-ms/ms of amino acid sequences of peptides from a tryptic digest covered 41% of the total ArtinM amino acid sequence. In addition, circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy of rArtinM indicated that its global fold comprises β-sheet structure.

CONCLUSIONS:

Overall, the optimized process to express rArtinM in E. coli provided high amounts of soluble, correctly folded and active recombinant protein, compatible with large scale production of the lectin.
PMID:
 
22857259
 
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 
PMCID:
 
PMC3431236
 
Free PMC Article
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21.
 2012 Aug;15(8):517-9. doi: 012158/AIM.0015.

Rib plasmacytoma and IgA multiple myeloma with hyperviscosity syndrome.

Source

Catholic University of Brasília, DF, Brazil. vitorinomodesto@gmail.com

Abstract

Solitary bone plasmacytoma (SPB) can progress to generalized myeloma if not treated early. The elderly population is increasing and delays in diagnosis of plasma cell malignancies are frequent among them. Hyperglobulinemia of multiple myeloma (MM) plays a role in hyperviscosity syndrome (HVS). A 65-year-old woman with hypertension and diabetes mellitus was admitted due to loss of appetite, muscle weakness, breathlessness and discrete expectoration, without fever. Chest X-ray showed an abnormal shadow projection on the right lung field, while computed tomography (CT) revealed an osteolytic mass at the sixth rib. There were more than 50% of plasma cells in the bone marrow samples and high IgA levels according to serum electrophoresis. Rib plasmacytoma and overt IgA-producing myeloma with HVS were diagnosed, but treatment was unsuccessful. Case studies may enhance the awareness about this ominous condition, which may develop unnoticed, particularly in elderly patients with renal insufficiency, and can pose difficulties with diagnosis in primary care settings.
PMID:
 
22827791
 
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 
Free full text
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22.
 2012 Aug 15;523(2):186-9. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2012.06.073. Epub 2012 Jul 7.

Infusion of Sydenham's chorea antibodies in striatum with up-regulated dopaminergic receptors: a pilot study to investigate the potential of SC antibodies to increase dopaminergic activity.

Source

Neurology Service, Internal Medicine Department, UFMG, Brazil.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Sydenham's chorea (SC) is a neurological manifestation of rheumatic fever. Autoimmune mechanism of SC is supported by clinical improvement with immunomodulatory therapy; presence of circulating serum anti-basal ganglia antibodies; increase in Th2 group of cytokines in serum and CSF of patients. However, a role of the antibodies in the pathogenesis can only be established by their passive transfer. Chorea is a manifestation clearly related to increased dopaminergic (DA) activity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of antibodies from patients with Sydenham's chorea to cause behavior alterations on rats with unilateral post-synaptic dopamine receptor up-regulation.

METHODS:

Rats previously submitted to 6-hydroxidopamine (6-OH-DA) unilateral lesion of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and tested with apomorphine to ensure DA receptors up regulation, received intrastriatal infusion of antibodies from SC patients (n=4) or healthy controls (n=3) during 48 h. 24h post infusion initiation (24PI) and 48 h post infusion initiation (48PI), we registered the occurrence of spontaneous contra lateral rotations (CLR).

FINDINGS:

SC group exhibited significantly higher number of CLR than control group at 24PI (p=0.049) and 48PI (p=0.048).

CONCLUSION:

The limited sample of the present study restricts us to affirm that SC is really an immune-mediated condition. However the significant result of this pilot study points to preliminary evidence that SC antibodies may affect DA activity in rats with up-regulated striatal DA receptors.
Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
PMID:
 
22781496
 
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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23.
 2012;7(7):e40142. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0040142. Epub 2012 Jul 2.

Glia-pinealocyte network: the paracrine modulation of melatonin synthesis by tumor necrosis factor (TNF).

Source

Laboratory of Chronopharmacology, Institute of Biosciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Abstract

The pineal gland, a circumventricular organ, plays an integrative role in defense responses. The injury-induced suppression of the pineal gland hormone, melatonin, which is triggered by darkness, allows the mounting of innate immune responses. We have previously shown that cultured pineal glands, which express toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1), produce TNF when challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Here our aim was to evaluate which cells present in the pineal gland, astrocytes, microglia or pinealocytes produced TNF, in order to understand the interaction between pineal activity, melatonin production and immune function. Cultured pineal glands or pinealocytes were stimulated with LPS. TNF content was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. TLR4 and TNFR1 expression were analyzed by confocal microscopy. Microglial morphology was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. In the present study, we show that although the main cell types of the pineal gland (pinealocytes, astrocytes and microglia) express TLR4, the production of TNF induced by LPS is mediated by microglia. This effect is due to activation of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) pathway. In addition, we observed that LPS activates microglia and modulates the expression of TNFR1 in pinealocytes. As TNF has been shown to amplify and prolong inflammatory responses, its production by pineal microglia suggests a glia-pinealocyte network that regulates melatonin output. The current study demonstrates the molecular and cellular basis for understanding how melatonin synthesis is regulated during an innate immune response, thus our results reinforce the role of the pineal gland as sensor of immune status.
PMID:
 
22768337
 
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 
PMCID:
 
PMC3388049
 
Free PMC Article
Icon for Public Library of Science Icon for PubMed Central
24.
 2012;7(7):e39991. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0039991. Epub 2012 Jul 2.

Activating KIR and HLA Bw4 ligands are associated to decreased susceptibility to pemphigus foliaceus, an autoimmune blistering skin disease.

Source

Laboratório de Genética Molecular Humana, Departamento de Genética, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Brazil.

Abstract

The KIR genes and their HLA class I ligands have thus far not been investigated in pemphigus foliaceus (PF) and related autoimmune diseases, such as pemphigus vulgaris. We genotyped 233 patients and 204 controls for KIR by PCR-SSP. HLA typing was performed by LABType SSO reagent kits. We estimated the odds ratio, 95% confidence interval and performed logistic regression analyses to test the hypothesis that KIR genes and their known ligands influence susceptibility to PF. We found significant negative association between activating genes and PF. The activating KIR genes may have an overlapping effect in the PF susceptibility and the presence of more than three activating genes was protective (OR=0.49, p=0.003). A strong protective association was found for higher ratios activating/inhibitory KIR (OR=0.44, p=0.001). KIR3DS1 and HLA-Bw4 were negatively associated to PF either isolated or combined, but higher significance was found for the presence of both together (...).
PMID:
 
22768326
 
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 
PMCID:
 
PMC3388041
 
Free PMC Article
Icon for Public Library of Science Icon for PubMed Central
25.
 2012 Jan;76(1):38-44.

Fetal infections and antibody profiles in pigs naturally infected with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2).

Source

Laboratório de Pesquisa em Virologia Animal, Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Abstract

The aim of this study was to describe early infections with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in naturally infected piglets and the piglets' serologic profiles. A total of 20 sows (15 PCV2-vaccinated and 5 unvaccinated) and 100 newborn piglets were studied. Colostrum and serum of the sows and serum of the presuckling piglets were obtained on the day of parturition. Milk samples were collected on day 20 postpartum. Blood samples were taken and the piglets weighed on days 1, 20, 42, 63, and 84 postpartum. Colostrum and milk were evaluated for infectious PCV2 and for PCV2 total antibody (TA), neutralizing antibody (NA), and IgA. Serum samples were evaluated for PCV2 TA, NA, IgA, IgM, and DNA. The sows had high levels of TA and NA in serum and colostrum; however, 11 and 5, respectively, of the 20 colostrum and milk samples contained infectious PCV2. In the serum, PCV2 DNA and IgM were detected in 17 and 5, respectively, of the 20 sows. Nine piglets were born with PCV2 antibodies, which indicates in utero transmission of PCV2 after the period of immunocompetence (> 70 d of gestation). On day 1 postpartum, PCV2 DNA was detected in 29 of the 100 serum samples from the piglets. There was no difference between the weights of viremic and nonviremic piglets throughout the study. In conclusion, even on farms with sows that have high PCV2 antibody titers, vertical transmission of PCV2 may occur, resulting in piglet infection.
PMID:
 
22754093
 
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 
PMCID:
 
PMC3244286
 
Free PMC Article
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26.
 2012;18:1583-93. Epub 2012 Jun 15.

The involvement of anti-inflammatory protein, annexin A1, in ocular toxoplasmosis.

Source

Post-Graduation Structural and Functional Biology, Federal University of São Paulo, Brazil.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of the protein annexin A1 (ANXA1), a potent endogenous regulator of the inflammatory process, in ocular toxoplasmosis.

METHODS:

C57BL/6 female mice were infected using intravitreal injections of either 10(6) tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii (RH strain; T. gondii) or PBS only (control groups). After 24, 48, and 72 h, animals were sacrificed and their eyes were harvested for histopathological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural immunocytochemical analysis of ANXA1. Human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells (ARPE-19) were infected in vitro with T. gondii and collected after 60, 120, 240 min, and 24 h.

RESULTS:

Compared with non-infected eyes, an intense inflammatory response was observed in the anterior (24 h after infection) and posterior segments (72 h after infection) of the infected eye, characterized by neutrophil infiltration and by the presence of tachyzoites and their consequent destruction along with disorganization of normal retina architecture and RPE vacuolization. T. gondii infection was associated with a significant increase of ANXA1 expression in the neutrophils at 24, 48, and 72 h, and in the RPE at 48 and 72 h. In vitro studies confirmed an upregulation of ANXA1 levels in RPE cells, after 60 and 120 min of infection with T. gondii.

CONCLUSIONS:

The positive modulation of endogenous ANXA1 in the inflammatory and RPE cells during T. gondii infection suggests that this protein may serve as a therapeutic target in ocular toxoplasmosis.
PMID:
 
22740770
 
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 
PMCID:
 
PMC3382303
 
Free PMC Article
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27.
 2012 Aug;13(4):476-82. doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2012.04.012. Epub 2012 May 14.

Modulatory effect of mycophenolate mofetil on carrageenan-induced inflammation in the mouse air pouch model.

Source

Department of Clinical Analyses, Centre of Health Sciences, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Campus Universitário, Trindade, 88040-970, Florianopolis, SC, Brazil.

Abstract

The treatment of some inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, remains an important target for studies because some patients are refractory to conventional treatment. Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), an immunosuppressive drug, has been shown to have a beneficial effect on the therapy of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. In the present study, we aimed to analyse the anti-inflammatory effect of MMF administered by oral route in the mouse carrageenan-induced air pouch model. Results: MMF significantly inhibited the influx of leukocytes, exudate concentrations (...)
Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
PMID:
 
22595194
 
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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28.
 2012 Mar;56(2):149-51.

Does undetectable basal Tg measured with a highly sensitive assay in the absence of antibodies and combined with normal ultrasonography ensure the absence of disease in patients treated for thyroid carcinoma?

Source

Núcleo de Pós-Graduação da Santa Casa de Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. pedrorosario@globo.com

Abstract

It has been proposed that, in patients treated for well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma, undetectable basal thyroglobulin (Tg) levels measured with a highly sensitive assay in the absence of anti-thyroglobulin antibodies (TgAb) and combined with negative neck ultrasonography (US) ensured the absence of disease. We report a series of five patients with well-differentiated (papillary) carcinoma submitted to total thyroidectomy with apparently complete tumor resection, followed by remnant ablation with (131)I (100-150 mCi), who had no distant metastases upon initial post-therapy whole-body scanning. When tumor recurrence or persistence was detected, these patients presented undetectable basal Tg (0.1 ng/mL) in the absence of TgAb, and US showed no anomalies. Two patients had lymph node metastases, one had mediastinal metastases, bone involvement was observed in one patient, and local recurrence in one. We conclude that further studies are needed to define in which patients undetectable basal Tg (negative TgAb) combined with negative US is sufficient, and no additional tests are required.
PMID:
 
22584569
 
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 
Free full text
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29.
 2012 Mar;56(2):137-41.

Prevalence of obesity and cardiovascular risk in patients with HIV/AIDS in Porto Alegre, Brazil.

Source

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Médicas, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ, Brazil. andreafks@gmail.com

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The aim of this study was to discover the prevalence of overweight, obesity and cardiovascular risk in our HIV/AIDS outpatients according to sex, antiretroviral therapy and other variables.

SUBJECTS AND METHODS:

Patients underwent an anthropometric assessment. Body mass index and waist circumference were used to classify their nutritional status and their cardiovascular risk.

RESULTS:

The majority of the 345 patients (58.8%) were males. Obesity was detected in 8.3% of them; 34.2% were overweight, and 5.2% malnourished. Near half of them (51.3%) had some cardiovascular risk, with increased risk in 24.6% of them, and substantially increased risk in 26.7% of them.

CONCLUSIONS:

Overweight and obesity were highly prevalent. Women were more frequently obese (OR = 3.53; IC 95%, 1.47 < OR < 8.69), and their cardiovascular risk was often higher (OR = 6.97; IC 95%, 4.16 < OR < 11.76). The prevalence of obesity and cardiovascular risk did not change according to antiretroviral therapy or other variables.
PMID:
 
22584567
 
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 
Free full text
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30.
 2012 Jul 15;356:260-4. doi: 10.1016/j.carres.2012.02.028. Epub 2012 Mar 6.

Toll-like receptors (TLR2 and TLR4) recognize polysaccharides of Pseudallescheria boydii cell wall.

Source

Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas/Pólo de Xerém, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Abstract

Pseudallescheria boydii is an opportunistic fungus widespread in the environment, and has recently emerged as an agent of localized as well as disseminated infections in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent hosts. The host response to fungi is in part dependent on the activation of evolutionary conserved receptors including Toll-like receptors and phagocytic receptors. This review will discuss the isolation and structural characterization of α-glucans and rhamnomannans from P. boydii cell wall and their roles in the induction of innate immune response.
Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
PMID:
 
22507831
 
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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31.
 2012 Jan-Feb;87(1):9-16; quiz 17-8.

HLA and skin cancer.

Source

Service of Dermatology, Federal University of Health Sciences of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.

Abstract

Skin cancer - melanoma and non melanoma - are common neoplasm with rising incidence over the last decades. It is an important public health problem. Its pathogenesis is not completely understood and the same happens with the genetic factors involved. The genes that encode the HLA are associated with some tumors and they may be responsible for one of the mechanisms that take part in the development of the before mentioned cancers. We have reviewed the literature on the subject of HLA antigens, melanoma and non melanoma skin cancer.
PMID:
 
22481646
 
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 
Free full text
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32.
 2012 Mar 30;12:50. doi: 10.1186/1471-2180-12-50.

Features of two proteins of Leptospira interrogans with potential role in host-pathogen interactions.

Source

Centro de Biotecnologia, Instituto Butantan, Avenida Vital Brazil, 1500, 05503-900, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Leptospirosis is considered a re-emerging infectious disease caused by pathogenic spirochaetes of the genus Leptospira. Pathogenic leptospires have the ability to survive and disseminate to multiple organs after penetrating the host. Leptospires were shown to express surface proteins that interact with the extracellular matrix (ECM) and to plasminogen (PLG). This study examined the interaction of two putative leptospiral proteins with laminin, collagen Type I, collagen Type IV, cellular fibronectin, plasma fibronectin, PLG, factor H and C4bp.

RESULTS:

We show that two leptospiral proteins encoded by LIC11834 and LIC12253 genes interact with laminin in a dose - dependent and saturable mode, with dissociation equilibrium constants (KD) of 367.5 and 415.4 nM, respectively. These proteins were named Lsa33 and Lsa25 (Leptospiral surface adhesin) for LIC11834 and LIC12253, respectively. Metaperiodate - treated laminin reduced Lsa25 - laminin interaction, suggesting that sugar moieties of this ligand participate in this interaction. The Lsa33 is also PLG - binding receptor, with a KD of 23.53 nM, capable of generating plasmin in the presence of an activator. Although in a weak manner, both proteins interact with C4bp, a regulator of complement classical route. In silico analysis together with proteinase K and immunoflorescence data suggest that these proteins might be surface exposed. Moreover, the recombinant proteins partially inhibited leptospiral adherence to immobilized laminin and PLG.

CONCLUSIONS:

We believe that these multifunctional proteins have the potential to participate in the interaction of leptospires to hosts by mediating adhesion and by helping the bacteria to escape the immunesystem and to overcome tissue barriers. To our knowledge, Lsa33 is the first leptospiral protein described to date with the capability of binding laminin, PLG and C4bp in vitro.
PMID:
 
22463075
 
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 
PMCID:
 
PMC3444417
 
Free PMC Article
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33.
 2012 Jul;53(3):227-31. doi: 10.1007/s10329-012-0306-6. Epub 2012 Mar 20.

Exposure to rabies virus in a population of free-ranging capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus) in a fragmented, environmentally protected area in southeasternBrazil.

Source

Department of Veterinary Hygiene and Public Health, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, São Paulo State University, UNESP, Botucatu, SP, 18618-000, Brazil.

Abstract

The aim of this study is to assess the frequency of rabies antibodies in free-ranging capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus) in a fragmented, environmentally protected, rural area of southeastern Brazil. Thirty-six free-ranging monkeys were tested by the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test for detection of antibodies against rabies virus. Four individuals (11.11 %) had neutralizing antibody titers ≥ 0.25 IU/mL, demonstrating rabies virus exposure.
PMID:
 
22430558
 
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Icon for Springer
34.
 2012 Jul;53(3):303-9. doi: 10.1007/s10329-012-0302-x. Epub 2012 Mar 3.

Callithrix penicillata as a nonhuman primate model for strongyloidiasis.

Source

Laboratório de Taxonomia e Biologia de Invertebrados, Departamento de Parasitologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, P.O. Box 486, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, 30123-970, Brazil. aldemelo@icb.ufmg.br

Abstract

In order to better understand experimental strongyloidiasis in small New World primates, and to evaluate aspects of reinfection and immunosuppression induced by glucocorticoids, nine specimens of Callithrix penicillata (Primates: Cebidae) were administered (by subcutaneous injection, sc) 3000 infective larvae of a strain of Strongyloides venezuelensis (Rhabditida: Strongyloididae) that had been maintained in successive passages through AKR/J mice since 1987. The mean prepatent period was 5.6 ± 0.7 days post-infection (DPI). The mean patent period of infection among the untreated animals (marmosets 1-7) was 123.4 ± 61.4 DPI. Two animals (marmosets 8 and 9) received dexamethasone (2.5 mg/kg, sc) for five consecutive days starting on the 20th day after infection, but this treatment did not alter the course of the infection, and the patent period for these animals was 100.5 ± 58.7 DPI (59 and 142, respectively). Stool examination showed that the highest quantities of parasite eggs were expelled between the 8th and 19th days after inoculation of the larvae. Thereafter, there was a gradual reduction in the number of parasite eggs in feces of all marmosets. During the chronic phase of the infection, before completely negative parasitological findings were obtained, the parasitological examinations were intermittently positive. Reinfection of three of these animals did not result in new positive examinations. However, given the receptiveness of these animals to initial infection with S. venezuelensis and their similarities to human beings, it is proposed that C. penicillata could be used as a nonhuman primate model for experimental strongyloidiasis.
PMID:
 
22388422
 
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Icon for Springer
35.
 2012 Jul;18(7):1038-41. doi: 10.1177/1352458511428465. Epub 2011 Oct 31.

Disappearance of cerebrospinal fluid oligoclonal bands after natalizumab treatment of multiple sclerosis patients.

Source

Neuroimmunology Unit, Department of Genetics, Evolution and Bioagents, University of Campinas - UNICAMP, Brazil.

Abstract

Intrathecal immunoglobulin synthesis in an oligoclonal pattern is the most common immunologic abnormality detected in MS patients. Various treatments, such as immunomodulators and immunosuppressors, have not been found to modify it. Natalizumab hinders migration of encephalitogenic T-cells into the central nervous system (CNS), reducing inflammatory response. Its impact on CSF oligoclonal bands (OCBs) has not been demonstrated. This report describes its effect in four out of six patients with multiple sclerosis after a mean of 10 infusions: the CSF was negative for OCBs at the second lumbar puncture. In conclusion, natalizumab treatment can reduce CSF OCBs to undetectable levels, although the clinical significance of this observation is not yet known.
PMID:
 
22041091
 
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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