quarta-feira, 2 de julho de 2014

Um pequeno cardápio para acompanhar a Copa do Mundo sem abandonar a imunologia

Vocês têm lido sobre exercício e resposta imune? Muita coisa é publicada, inclusive há uma revista Exercise Immunology Review (EIR), publicação oficial da International Society of Exercise and Immunology e da German Society of Sports Medicine and Prevention. A revista teve fator de impacto de 7.053 em 2013.

Vejam alguns exemplos publicados lá e em outras revistas:

"A lack of physical activity is linked to the development of many chronic diseases. It is now well established that the immune system and inflammation play a central role in the development of numerous chronic metabolic diseases including insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and specific types of cancer. Physical exercise elicits potent anti-inflammatory effects that are likely to account for many of the salutary actions of regular exercise on chronic metabolic diseases. Here we review the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory mechanisms by which the beneficial effects of exercise on chronic metabolic diseases may be mediated.” The immunomodulating role of exercise in metabolic disease. (2014). The immunomodulating role of exercise in metabolic disease.,Volume 35, Issue 6, Trends in Immunology 35(6) p262–269, June 2014. DOI:

"MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are one of the largest families of non-coding RNAs. MiR- NAs mediate post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. The amount of data supporting the key role of miRNAs in the adaptation of the immune and other body systems to exercise steadily grows. MiRNAs change their expression profi- les after exercise and seem to be involved in regulation of exercise-responsive genes in immune and other cell types.” Exercise immunology Rev. MiRNAs. (2014). Exercise immunology meets MiRNAs., 20, 135–164.

"While regular exercise training has been shown to enhance specific immune functions, acute bouts of intensive exercise often lead to a pro-inflammatory response accompanied by a transient lymphocytopenia and neutrophilia. It can be assu- med, that lymphocytopenia can be attributed at least partially to an enhanced lymphocyte apoptosis. In contrast, regulation of neutrophil apoptosis after exer- cise remains controversial since st”dies demonstrated both an up-regulation as well as a down-regulation of cell death. However, these discrepancies may be due to differences in exercise protocols, subjects’ fitness levels, and to different methodological approaches.” Exercise-induced leukocyte apoptosis. (2014). Exercise immunology Rev.., 20, 117–134.
"It is widely recognized that exercise has an important role in inflammation regulation. To understand inflammatory mechanisms, extensive studies on the transcriptome and proteome have been conducted. However, interpreting these results is difficult, partly due to technical difficulties that impose some restriction on the accuracy and comprehensiveness of measurements. Here we first mention some limitations of studies involving large scale proteomics and high-throughput transcriptomics and further introduce a newly developed genome-wide translational analysis which may overcome some of the limitations and discover novel cellular dynamics. We then show preliminary results obtained by conducting a genome-wide translational analysis of the early inflammatory response of macrophages in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and discuss the potential to identify novel factors by employing a genome-wide translational analysis. Exploring the importance of translational regulation in the inflammatory responses by a genome-wide approach. (2014).” Exploring the importance of translational regulation in the inflammatory responses by a genome-wide approach., Exercise immunology Rev. 20, 55–67.

Physical stressors, such as strenuous exercise, can have numerous effects on the human body including the immune system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the gene expression profile of Th1/Th2 cytokines and related transcription factor genes in order to investigate possible immune imbalances before and after a marathon. Blood samples were collected from 16 normal volunteers 24–48 h before and one week after completing a marathon race. Gene expression of Th1 and Th2 related cytokines from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was analyzed using Human Th1-Th2-Th3 RT2 Profiler PCR Array and qRT-PCR that measured the transcript levels of 84 genes related to T cell activation. We found that PBMC express a characteristic Th2-like gene profile one week post-marathon compared to pre-marathon. The majority of genes up-regulated one week post-marathon such as IL-4, GATA3, and CCR4 were Th2 associated. For Th1-related genes, CXCR3 and IRF1 were up-regulated one week post-marathon. There was a trend of down-regulation of two Th1 related genes, T-bet and STAT1. Th3-related gene expression patterns did not change in the study. The ratios of both IFN-γ/IL-4 and T-bet/GATA3 gene expressions were significantly lower one week after marathon. These findings suggest that a Th1/Th2 immune imbalance persisted at least 1 week after completion of a marathon which offers a mechanistic rationale for the increased risk of upper respiratory tract infections often reported after strenuous exercise. Effects of strenuous exercise on Th1/Th2 gene expression from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells of marathon participants. (2014). Effects of strenuous exercise on Th1/Th2 gene expression from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells of marathon participants., 60(2), 129–134. doi:10.1016/j.molimm.2014.03.004

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